Morphology or Etymology?

Morphology studies the components of words; etymology studies the history of words. When the definitions are stated so starkly, the distinction between morphology and etymology seems very clear. But in practice, a morphological analysis of a word is often very hard to tell apart from a etymological analysis. Consider the following pairs of statements:

  • MORPHOLOGY: Blackbird is a compound of black and bird.
  • ETYMOLOGY: Blackbird was formed by compounding black with bird.

  • MORPHOLOGY: USA is an initialism of United States of America.

  • ETYMOLOGY: USA was formed from the initials of the main words in United States of America.

In these sentences, the difference between morphology and etymology is trivial, and it disappears entirely when the statements are brief enough. More often than not, you’ll find that the sort of concise etymologies found in most dictionaries severs very well as a morphological analysis. The confluence of etymology and morphology is particularly strong in a book like this one, where the history of a word is taken as an important piece of evidence for its morphology.

But often there is a sharp distinction between morphology and etymology. Here are some examples of etymological statements that would be out of place in a morphological analysis:

  • The word deficit first appeared in print in English in 1782, and was borrowed from French.
  • Oak comes from the Old English word āc. It is related to German word Eich.

This kind of information is also included in many dictionaries, and students need to be careful not to automatically copy out such information when asked to do purely morphological research. These facts say nothing about what the functional elements of the words might be. By the same token, morphological statements such as the following would be considered laughably inadequate by etymologists:

  • Deficit has the structure de-fic-i-t, where the root is fic ‘do’.
  • Oak is a morpheme.

There are even situations when the morphology conflicts with etymology. While cockroach certainly derives from cucaracha historically, today it is a compound of cock and roach. Scissors can be traced etymologically to the Latin root cid ‘cut’, which puts it in the same group of words as decide and incisor; but in its modern spelling it groups more naturally with words such as scissile and scission, so arguably it now shares with those words the morph sciss, which means ‘split’ or ‘cut’.

This book deals with both morphology and etymology, so the reader should always be attentive to the distinction. Perhaps the biggest source of confusion comes from the fact that in discussing a word’s morphology, we often talk about whether elements are native, Latin, or Greek. Because the classical Latin and Greek languages were spoken a few thousand years ago, this certainly sounds like a historical, therefore etymological, approach. However, the source language is mentioned primarily because word elements from different languages often have different morphological properties in English, as we shall see shortly. Besides, most of the words that contain Latin and Greek elements weren’t borrowed thousands of years ago. Most, in fact, are modern creations. The word anemometer, for example, was coined in the eighteenth century. Knowing that anem ‘wind’ and met ‘measure’ are Greek roots helps us understand why the interfix -o- is used in this compound.

How to choose a perfect board game?

老图了,最早图片来自于reddit,非常喜欢flow chart式的图片。多少让我回忆起有段时间不停收集infogram的记忆。

另外人家告诉我说4chan比reddit更有历史,看来我是太不了解西方的互联网界了。

我只是单纯的希望这个众筹项目能够成功

我在有了mac之后很大的一个改变就是开始用markdown写东西,两个词概括:方便和舒适。此外还可以在不懂的同学面前装个逼,满足一下虚荣心。

[Mou](http://25.io/mou/)无疑是我用来用去最常用的一款,到现在为止也一直都是beta阶段;这次开发者Chen Luo希望通过众筹(筹款目的为员工工资)来把它做成正式产品。目标金额是两万美刀,时间两个月,就目前的已筹款数额来看,比较危险。

我是非常希望它能够成功的,毕竟一个不错的项目能成为一个更加完善的产品,总是件非常愉快的事。我不清楚它的用户基础具体有多少,但是我相信对于开发者Chen Luo来说,给它的拥趸们带来一个让人快乐的消息,同时也为他本人带来经济上的收入的事情,何乐而不为。

我想说的是,如果你常用md写东西,不妨试一试现在还在beta阶段的Mou;如果你用过一段时间或者现在还在用,而且觉得这个产品不错的,最好能用自己的力量支持支持它。

祝愿它明年能如愿来到每个人的yosemite上。

另外众筹链接如下:https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/mou-1-0-markdown-editor-on-os-x-for-you

October 4, 2014 @Timmy

虽然我自己感觉我到现在为止80%的笔记是在iPad上记的 今天翻了一下没想到手写的笔记也已经有这么多了 (at Sorbara Hall)

python和far cry 3

最近一直在捣鼓python,就像自己反复跟别人强调的一样,思维真的是rusty了,很简单的东西往往要想来想去很多次才能弄明白。最痛苦的,还要算是debug的时候明明知道有错但是就是找不出来哪里错了。比较幸运的事情是找到一个不错的partner,韩国人,名字上感觉是这样,比较靠谱,不像之前的联系都联系不上。

自我反省一下,其实在python上花时间有点多了,不是好的迹象,毕竟手头要做的课程和要事还有很多,这样下去可能会越来越累,不过我还是打算给自己几周时间“回暖回暖”。

far cry 3是我最近一段时间打通关的唯一一款游戏。从高中时接触到刺客信条,知道ubisoft这家公司开始,就一直认为ubisoft的作品一直保持着很高的一个水平。far cry 3是我接触的系列第一款;一代和二代都没有体验过,想到第一代刚出的时候自己在《少年电脑世界》上似乎看到过介绍,不过印象已经模糊了。

言归正传,fc3的场景在同类型里不是做的最壮阔的,算是open world但是自由度并没有高到sandbox的感觉,也不能说有自己的“职业选择”。游戏模式基本来说是Hunting Simulator + Assassin’s Creed。打猎部分不谈了,一开始走着还有点担惊受怕,角落里猛一跳出的野兽确实够吓人,可是后来主人公如同打通二脉,拳打南山猛虎,脚踩北海蛟龙,比贝爷还贝爷,荒野生存能力爆表,兼职一个兽王……最奇怪的是,从来都不要吃东西……不过也是了,游戏而已,也没见ezio吃过披萨之类的。杀戮部分很刺客信条,同样的倒塔/爬塔,同样的尾行,同样的暗杀……

所以导致的结果是,玩多了,确实有点腻了。

可是偏偏在这一道油腻的大餐里,有这么一道爽口的沙拉——我们的大反派Vaas。我认为这是我玩过的ubisoft游戏中最好的一个反派角色,甚至是放眼道所有角色中,都是最棒,最丰满,最癫狂的一个。按理说,Vaas并不是游戏的大boss,但是在有他出场的戏份里,已经赚足了眼球。口音,眼影,纹身,mohawk发型,歇斯底里的精神状态,隐约看到了joker的影子。当然我的这个类比其实并不恰当,至少在漫画迷眼里。后来我了解了一下,ubisoft之所以能把vaas做的如此传神的原因在于,这个角色是按照真人演员的外貌制作出来的,而他所有的动作,对白都是由同一位演员完成的。我查了一下,演员是Michael Mando,加拿大魁北克人,并不是有名的演员,但是他的演绎确实是在这款游戏里达到淋漓尽致了。

摘录一段最有代表性的独白,姑且说叫the definition of insanity:

>Did I ever tell you what the definition of insanity is? Insanity is doing the exact… same fucking thing… over and over again expecting… shit to change… That. Is. Crazy. The first time somebody told me that, I dunno, I thought they were bullshitting me, so, I shot him. The thing is… He was right. And then I started seeing, everywhere I looked, everywhere I looked all these fucking pricks, everywhere I looked, doing the exact same fucking thing… over and over and over and over again thinking ‘this time is gonna be different’ no, no, no please… This time is gonna be different, I’m sorry, I don’t like… The way…

>… you are looking at me… Okay, Do you have a fucking problem in your head, do you think I am bullshitting you, do you think I am lying? Fuck you! Okay? Fuck you!… It’s okay, man. I’m gonna chill, hermano. I’m gonna chill… The thing is… Alright, the thing is I killed you once already… and it’s not like I am fucking crazy. It’s okay… It’s like water under the bridge. Did I ever tell you the definition… of insanity?

因为vaas,我给8.5分。

对于11月的fc4,更加期待,反派是个粉色西装油头粉面的asian,名字取自于缅甸历史上有名的暴君,而配音演员则是配音界的大神——Tony Baker。

如果剧情不够丰满,人物丰满则成为了硬指标,fc3做到了这一点。当然我们希望在丰满剧情下站着几个丰满的人物,当很久之后,故事如同退去的潮水一样消逝时,还能留几个难忘的身影在人们心中,那这款作品(游戏,甚至是文学)就会是成功的。不过说回来,游戏的惯性可以让你认为:剧情一半,但是还是打通关再说吧。而如果是文学,你会认为:这写的什么狗屁玩意儿,不看了!

September 26, 2014 @ Tim Hortons

LIN203 notes (weekly updated) and stuffs

最早这个网站就是被我用来po笔记的,后来被催笔记催烦了所以转移了。

现在还是默默的做好事留个名吧。我叫……

以下是我LIN203的三份笔记链接,每周更新,均为Markdown格式。

分别为:课堂笔记,tutorial笔记和morpheme列表。

All of those notes are stored in Dropbox as Markdown files:

Lecture notes: 

https://www.dropbox.com/s/rsq3b5iniydqy4q/lin203_lecture_notes.md?dl=0

Tutorial notes: 

https://www.dropbox.com/s/1e5nd5aj39i72ga/tutorial_notes.md?dl=0

Morpheme lists (from textbook):

https://www.dropbox.com/s/jflj3qgrvxxs0pg/word_elements.md?dl=0

此外我还take csc148, sta452, sta437。如果有需要笔记或者录音,都可以联系我。

Besides, I’m taking csc148, sta452, sta437 this term. If you ever need a note or class recording, you can contact me freely. I won’t charge any fees, just a lovely ‘thank you’ would be enough. (cuz i sometimes meet students who send mass email to ask for notes, but don’t even say a ‘thank you’ after getting assistance from people. No offence, but this is not how to be a ‘polite’ people, right?)

知道的事情太多,想知道的事情更多;可是能够知道的事情毕竟有限;所以有了痛苦,有了烦恼,有了弯路和挫折。

为什么你的代码烂?

作者是Dave Astels,2004年的blog。

开篇就说:只要是个人,代码都是有缺陷的。(本身不论什么东西想做到完美就不易)

If you are like most, and possibly even all, programmers (this author humblely included) then your code sucks. Maybe not all of it, and maybe not all the time, but certainly some of it, some of the time.

基本来说,Dave总结了六个具体的情况(原因),分别是:

  • doesn’t work,狗屁不通,不必解释
  • not testable,深不可“测”
  • hard to read,不说人话
  • not understandable,行得通不代表说易理解,比如变量起名的问题……
  • dogmatically conforms a trendy framework at the cost of following good design/implementation practices,随大流从而舍弃好思路
  • has duplication,事倍功半

September 14, 2014 @ Tim Hortons

记日常生活

人不适合回忆;一回忆,就惆怅。

好的一面是,现在的生活作息、饮食、学习,包括心态都是这几个月来最好的。除却不太满意的地方,比如身体的耐力,体脂含量都处于一个亚健康的状态(至少是我自己这么认为)。

七点半起床。八点早餐。九点上课。十二点午餐。五点或六点晚餐。零点至一点就寝。间歇在宿舍内有氧。每餐三盘以上,至少一盘纯蔬菜,每天三顿水果,两次牛奶/酸奶。

读书,读小说(目前是三体),课本(今年卖课本收回100元,未投入资金在课本上,感谢uoft网上资源)。

Coding。我今天在一个mentor和mentee的见面会上被问今年的expectation是什么。我说,GRE满意。其实还有很实际的一点就是我希望自己能够很快在programming方面入门,或者说,是更进一步。

另外一个,虽然没有观察过很多大一学妹,不过倒是看到不少其他年级比较耐看的学妹。我没有想太多,只是拥有一双到处欣赏美的眼睛。

这就是单身男的特权吧。

秋天就要来了,说要大幅降温。我是很久很久没有用心写字了,连话都不会说,连屁都不会放了。

下午多伦多下了很大的雨,只是不知道这么大的雨有没有淋到你。

September 10, 2014 @ 还是常去的那家Timmy

iTunes,专辑封面和歌词

iTunes上,非正版途径获得的歌曲一般没有高质量的封面,而基本全部的歌曲都没有歌词。

对于有整理强迫的人来说,推荐两个途径。

Ben Dodson利用iTunes搜索API制作了一个iTunes Artwork Finder,非常棒。指要选择专辑,输入名称,选择iTunes商店区域(个别专辑在不同区会有不同封面)即可获得两种不同分辨率的高质量封面。

当然,有一点不好的,就是iTunes上本身中文歌曲就比较匮乏,所以中文专辑封面还需要一些途径。

我记得当时Google还没被赶出大陆,Google音乐搜索还能使用的时候,很多从中下载的歌曲都伴随有歌词。当然这个是题外话。我之前听说过一款全平台app叫做musixmatch,非常好用,但是由于这几年选择了走freemium的道路,一直就没有染指。(其实主要还是Mac版本价格过高)

替代品可以选择Get lyrical,个人认为是非常精巧的一个app,上手也容易。有的问题是两个,若选择搜索歌词的歌曲是非英文,会crash或卡死;另外一个就是原作者已经有一段时间没有更新维护,不过在Mavericks上没有什么大问题。

September 6, 2014 @ Tim Hortons on Bay and Wellesley

TextExpander和找字典

报LIN203完全是出于帮GRE背单词的原因,结果老师今天开了portal,见了syllabus之后发觉上书:

建议使用有详细辞源的字典,而且印刷品一定比电子版准确哟。

提及的两款分别是Canadian Oxford Dictionary和American Heritage Dictionary (5th ed)。Amazon.ca上当然是两者都有的,但是后者价格非常优惠,只是暂时缺货,需要2-4周送货时间。因此搜了学校书店以及周边书店的网站都没有,看了iTunes上官方的app,截图还是iOS 6,感觉有些更新滞后;虽然它称内容全包含但是价格又不喜人……(老师你为什么要选这本)

碰到这些杂碎小事,本人还是事必躬亲的好。

这几天一直忙着清闲置app,TextExpander虽然说才折扣入手一周,但是我知道它的用处绝对不止是用“分号+em”输入一下邮箱这么简单的。

紧接着就发现了MPU的主播David Sparks的一个[汇总网页](http://macsparky.com/tesnippets/),上面有他自己用的snippets的整合,并有下载链接,稍微研究了一下。

September 5, 2014 @ Tim Hortons on Bay and Wellesley.

重新拿起LCP

Launch Center Pro显然是App Store里一款被许多人冠以“must-have”的应用,掌握与否也可以说是普通用户和power user的一个分水岭。我虽然买了多时,缺从未细心研究过。下午看了文刀汉三博客里的几篇,顺序分别是:

其实第一篇并未跟LCP有直接的关系,只不过我是看到觉得跟自己的实际情况有些类似,参考着对自己当下的信息管理做一些借鉴和改进,有所收获。尤其是引出的三篇关于Drafts的文章,也是我目前需要摸索的(暑假还剩一个周末,当然来得及):

晚上有空的时候去Codecademy复习了一下python。考虑到之前学的是v2马上要碰的v3而且实在放下了太久,还是有必要看看的。

September 4, 2014@Sorbara 230